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  玖久高考:高考英语“主旨大意题”考试技术  
 
 
  作者:王倩  文章来源:新浪教育  发布时间:2012-02-17 浏览量:2924  
     "推理判断" 类考题解答锦囊

    每篇文章都有一定的写作目的,作者往往期待读者读了文章后知道应当怎样去做某些事情或按某种方式思考问题。这层意思通常并不是在文章申明确表达出来,而是隐含在文章之中。这就要求读者在阅读过程中去沟通外现的和内含的,已述的和未述的含义。这就需要仔细的阅读和认真的思考,在通盘理解文章的基础上去领会作者的言外之意,去掌握语言的微妙之处,真正欣赏和理解阅读的东西;阅读中的推论是很常见的,我们所读的一切几乎都可以做出程度不同的推论。

    凡推断出的内容在文章中都没有明确叙述,但却暗含在文字之中。因此在进行推断时,必须以有关的文字部分作为推理的前提和依据。所谓推断,指根据推测而加以判断;而推测总是根据已知的信息推断出未知的信息。即把有关的文字作为已知部分,从中推断出未知部分。据以推理的有关文字部分可能是词或句子,也可能是若干句,甚至全文,要想做出精确的推断,必须注意以下四点。

    1.细心地了解文章中所提供的全部信息和信息的各个方面。

    2.分析已知的信息,用正确的观点,借助于一些常识,最大限度地捕捉到信息的本质。

    3.注意词、句子的本义和与之有关的其他意义。   

    4.根据己知信息,即短文或有关的文字部分,做出的推断必须与作者的原意相符,切忌以自己的观点取代作者的原意。   

    推理判断往往包括数据事实推断,常识推断,逻辑结论以及推断作者的写作目的、态度、倾;向等几种类型。   

1.数据事实推断:这种推断常常针对某一个或几个具体细节。是比较简单的推断。首先在原文中找到据以推理的有关文字部分,对与数字有关的推断,只需简单推算,即可得出结果。对与事实有关的,要加以分析,尤其要悟出字里行间的意思。   

例题:

       House prices in England increased sharply between 1971 and 1972. The following records how much a house in Chelsea London, had risen in price since 1955:

     Take No. 29 Smith Terrace for example. In 1955,Jane Grey sold for 2,000. Mrs Bowena Black bought it for4,900 and sold it nine years later to Bill and Dreen White for22,950. Now four years later. 1)The price of the house was         as high in 1972 as in the yearJane Grey sold it.

   A. about ten times  B. twice      C. 150 percent      D. fifteen times

2)Mrs Bowena Black made a prof it (利润)of______.

  A. 2,900      B.8,典型例题£7,典型例题  D.18,典型例题Of all the tenants,who earned most?

  A. The Whites.       B. Jane Grey. C. Mrs Black.       D. Mr White.

4)When did Mrs Black buy the house?

  A. 1971.           B. 1972      C. 1968.            D. 1959

5)Jane Grey lived at No. 29 Smith Terrace

  A. for four years                  B. for nine years

  C. between 1971 and 1972           D. before 1955

6)If MrS B1aCk had waited four years to setl the house She would have earned as much as_______.

    A.£28000    B.£18000  C.£30000    D.£25100

    以上各题的推理前提均可在原文中找到。第1题的正确答案须从“In 1955JaneGrey s典型例题£2000,”“…inl972the house is valued at30000;”这两句话推知,D项对。第2题的正确答案应从“Mrs Bowena Black bought it for4900and sold it nine years later to Billand Dreen White for229500'得知D项对。第3题的正确答案应从“…Jane Grey sold for2000  Mrs Bowena Black bought it for4900 and so1d it nine years later to Bill andDreenWhitefOr22950.”推知,MrsBlack获利最多。第4题须从“Mrs Bosena Blackand sold it nine yearsNOW four years laterinl972….”得知Mrs Black是在1959年买的房子,故D项为正确答案。第5题可从“Inl955Jane Grey so1d it for2000.”推知D项正确。第6题须从“Mrs Bowena Black...£4900”“...the house is valued at30000”两句话推知D项为正确答案。

    2.常识推断:有些时候,文章里并没有提供任何可据以推断的材料,或虽有提供,但却不足以推出正确的未知事实。这时便须根据平常积累的有关知识来进行推断。

     : Annealing is a way of making metal softer by heating it and then letting it cool very slowly.

    If metal is heated and then cooled very quicky, for example by dipping it in water, it will be very hard but also very brittle()--that is, it will break easily. Metal that has been annealed is soft but does not break as easily. It is possible to make metal as hard or as soft as is wished, by annealing it. The metal is heated, and allowed to cool slowly for a certain length of time. The longer the heated metal takes to cool slowly, the softer it becomes. Annealing can also be used on other mate rials, such as glass. Why do people put hot metal in water? A. To make it hard.   B. To make it soft. C. To make it cool.   B. To make it brittl

 从文中“by dipping it in waterit will be very hard but also very brittle.”这一信息还不足以推出正确答案。然后根据物理常识,在制造各种工具时,往往采取淬火这一工艺,其目的是使金属变硬以便制成锋利的工具。即可推出选项A为正确答案。

    3.逻辑结论:这类推断比前两种困难得多。在阅读过程中,读者必须对文章的全部事实或细节作通盘考虑,从而得出合乎逻辑的结论。结论是根据事实作出的惟一决定。要想从一个句子,一个段落或一篇文章中得出正确的结论,读者必须学会善于思考,不断提高自己的逻辑思维能力。

   Have you ever heard of a sport called tubing? Hundreds of people float down a rushing river at once in old truck-tire tubes. Sometimes many hold hands. At first the ride is bumpy and frightful, for the narrow river rushes swiftly. Then the river widens and grows calm. Never try tubing alone or in rapids, however.

   The story suggests that tubing________.

   A. should not be done in moving water

   B. is done mainly by truck drivers

   C. costs a lot of money

   D. can be dangerous

 根据文中内容数百人乘坐着旧卡车,轮胎在湍急的河水中向下游漂去,颠簸而可怕,可推知这项运动是十分危险的。D项为正确答案。

4.推断作者的写作目的、态度,文章的语气等:这类推断要求对论述对象持何种态度、思想倾向作出判断。如作者对所陈述的观点是赞成,还是反对,对记叙或描写的人或事等是喜欢,或是厌恶;是同情或是冷漠。作者的这种态度和感情色彩不一定直接表述出来,而往往隐含在字里行间,或者流露于修饰的词语之中。因此要做好这类推断须综观全文,掌握主题思想,并以此为推理的前提,还要注意文章的措辞,把握文章论述的基调。

 : Some people are never right. They never have good luck. They usually do the wrong thing and say the wrong thing. And even if what they say or do is OK, they as a rule say it or do it at the wrong time. So these people always have problems. They often break dishes. They sometimes miss buses and airplanes.

     Mr Neff is different. He is always right. He is never wrong. He usually has good luck. He seldom has problems. He never breaks dishes. He never misses buses or airplanes. Even if he does miss them? it is always'the fault of the buses or the airplanes.

     Mr Neff knows almost everything. He doesn't ask questions? he answers questions. He never says, "I don't know."

     I don't know Mm Neff. It seems that not many people know her. I sometimes wonder about her. Is she always right? Or maybe she is always wrong? Dces she often break dishes or miss buses?

Does she have problems? I wonder.

1)Which of the following do you think gives the most important trait (特性) of Mr Neffs  character?

  A. He is a very wise man.

  B. He plans everything well.

  C. He is moral and upright.

  D. He is very satisfied with himself.

2)Which of the following do you guess is true of Mrs Neff?

  A. She probably obeys her husband in everything.

  B. She probably feels very proud to be a help of her husband.

  C. She probably quarrels with her husband all the time.

  D. She probably feels very happy to have such a successful husband.

3)Which of the following best describes the writer's attitude towards Mr Neff?

  A. He finds Mr Neff hard to understand.

  B. He thinks Mr Neff wonderful.

  C. He feels pity for Mr Neff.

  D. He does not like Mr Neff.

     以上各题的答案均没有直接表述在短文里,必须从字里行间悟出作者的言外之意。本文记叙的是一位一贯正确的人Mr Neff。根据这一主题,可推知他对自己的一切都很满意。第 1题选项D为正确答案。从Mr Neff事事正确,而Mr Neff又鲜为人知出发,可得出结论 Neff夫人在任何事情上都服从于她丈夫这一事实,故第2A为正确项。尽管短文中没有直接陈述作者对MrNeff这一人物的态度,但从主题思想和某些措辞中仍可悟出作者对Mr Neff很讨厌这一事实。如作者在文章中一再使用“Never”,一词,并还写到...Even if he does miss themit is alway Sthe fault of the buses of the airplanes.”等来暗示他对Mr Neff的厌恶之情,故第3D为正确答案。

    在阅读理解题中,有关针对段落或短文的特定细节、主题思想、常识,以及作者的写作态度、目的等的推断题,常见题型有:

1. We can infer from the passage (paragraph, fact, example... ) that_______.

2. The writer suggests that_______.

3. From the passage (paragraph, story... ), we can tell_______.

4. The passage implies, but does not directly state that_______.

5. We may conclude from the passage that_______.

6. The writer's (author's) attitude toward is_______.

7. The tone of the passage is_______.

Ⅰ高考最新热门题

1.(典型例题

Tristan da Cunha, a 38-square-mile isand, is the farthest inhabited island in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records. It is 1,510 miles west of its nearest neighour, ST. Helena,and 1,950 miles west of Africa. Discov- ered by the Portuguese admiral(葡萄牙海军上将)of the same name in 15典型例题settled in 1810, the isand belongs to Great Britain and has a population of few hundred.

     Coming in a close second--and often wrongly mentioned as the most distant land--is Easter Island, which lies 1,260 miles east of its nearest neighbor, Pitcairn Island, and 2,300 miles west of South America.

     The mountainous 64-square-mile island was settled around ther 5th century, supposedly by people who were lost at sea. They had no connection with the outside world for more than a thousand years,giving them plenty of time to build more than 1,000 huge stone figures, called moai, for which the island is most famous.

On Easter Sunday, 1722, however, settlers from Holland moved in and gave the island its name. today, 2,000 people live on the Chilean territory(智利领土). They share one street, a small airport, and a few hours of television per day.

1. It can be learned from the text that the island of tristan da Cunha_______.

   A. was named after its discoverer

   B. got its name from Holland settlers

   C. was named by the British govenment

   D. got its name from the Guinness Book of Records

2. Wich of the following is most famous for moai?

   A. Tristan da Cunha.         B. Pitcairn Island

   C. Easter Island.            D. St. Helena.

3. Which country does Easter Island belong to?

  A. Britain.         B. Hollland.

  C. Portugal.        D. Chile

命题目的与解题技巧:本文的命题目的考查学生推理判断能力。做这类题的技巧在于:首先在原文中找到据以推理的有关文字部分,借助于一些常识,然后加以分析推理,最终作出判断。  

解析:本文介绍了TristandaCunha岛的来历,地理位置及人们的生活状况。

答案1A  这是一道推断题。从第一段第三句,这小岛名字是以岛屿发现者的名字来命名的。

    2C  这理一道细节推断题,可从第二段、第三段,尤其是第三段第二句找到,Easterlsland(复活节岛)是智利在南太平洋上的一个小岛。

3D  这是一道细节推断题,可从第四段找到。请留意该段中的On Easter Sunday(在复活节上),暗示了Easter Island (复活节岛)。此外,该段有on the Chilean territory(智利领土)的字样,就很容易判断出该哪一个答案了。

2.(典型例题

      Garmes will rock to the sound of a cancan dance this year when Moulin Rouge by the Australian director Baz Luhnnann opens the French film festival (电影节) in May. The musical stars Nicole Kidman as a singer, and John Leguizamo as the artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. It will be competing for the Paime d'Or, the festival's top prize.  The festival runs to May 21.

     The American actor Tommy Lee Jones, 54, has married his longtime girlfriend. Dawn Maria Laurel, 36, in a private wedding in San Antonio. "It wasn't a big todo,' said Fred Biery, a U. S. District Judge who performed the service. He refused to discuss things further. "These are very private people," he said.

     Loretta Lynn is being treated for a very bad cold in Tennessee and will miss several appearances. The country singer, 65, was admitted to a hospital near her home in Hurricane Mills. "She is in good condition, but the doctors are watching her closely," a spokeswoman said.

The French-Algerian singer Enrico Macias was named a United Nations peace messenger. Enrico joins eight other people who act as goodwill envoys(使者) for the United Nations, among them are the writer Elie Wiesel and the basketball player Magic Johnson.

1. We can learn from the text that Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec is_______.

   A. a figure in a film

   B. a dancer in a show

   C. a country singer

   D. a prize winner

2. We know from the text that_______.

   A. Moulin Rouge won the top prize in a film festival

   B. Loretta Lynn is under the doctors' care

   D. eight people serve as the UN goodwill envoys

   D. Fred Biery was Tommy Lee Jones's assistant

3. This text most probably appears in_______.

   A. a book on film stars

   B. a film review in a magazine

   C. a newspaper

   D. a notice

Passage 1 (典型例题

Giving Back Fair Way

     The Westborough High School golf team had taken the of- ficial photos with the state prize. The other teams, disappoint- ed, were on the bus heading home. And then Westborough in- structor Greg Rota noticed something wrong on one of the score cards. A 9 had been recorded as a 7. They were not the state prize winner; Woburn High had won.  "No one would have known, "said Woburn's instructor, Bob Doraru For Rota, it wasn't a difficult decision." The prize wasn't ours to take. '

"Coin Stars"

"College students are lazy, but they also want to help" says University of Pennsylvania graduate Dana Hork. So she made it easy, placing cups in rooms where students could leave their spare coins, and handing out cups to first-year students to keep in their rooms. Her" Change for Change" effort has collected $ 40,000 for charities (慈善机构) , which were decided upon by students. Never Forgotten A school in Massachusetts received a $ 9. 5 million check from Jacques LeBermuth But it took officials several days of digging to discover his connection to the school Records showed the LeBermuth came from Belgium and studied in the school in the 1920s. When his family fell on hard times, he was offered free room and board. LeBermuth became a trader, owned shares of AT&T and lived off the earnings until he died, at age 89.

1. What did Greg Rota probably do in the end?

   A. Took photos of Doran.

   B. Had a meeting with Doran.

   C. Returned the prize to the organizer.

   D. Apologized to Woburn High Schook

答案: C  指导:考查根据文章内容进行推理判断的能力。获奖队的教练自己发现了错误,而且决定这个奖不能拿,那么接下来推断肯定是要把奖送回去。

2. Greg Rota's decision shows that he was _______.

   A. honest          B. polite

   C. careful         D. friendly

答案: A  指导:考查根据文章内容进行推理判断的能力。从Greg Rota自己发现错误到决定把奖送回,表明他性格中的诚实。因此答案为honest

3. The underlined word "Change" in the second paragraph means_______.

   A. Idea           B. Decision

   C. Cups           D. Coins

答案: D  指导:考查猜测词义的能力。Change for Change中的第一个change指的是“零钱”,第二个change是表示“变化”。两个change在一起肯定意思不同,关键在于首先应该明白change的不同含义,再根据文章内容进行判断。因为募集的零钱都捐给了慈善机构,改变了其他一些人的生活。所以介词for后面的change应该是目的表“变化”,那么第一个就是“零钱”。

4. What did the school officials do after receiving the check from Mr. LeBermuth?

   A They tried to find out why he gave them the money.

   B. They went to Belgium to pay their respects to him.

   C. They dug out the records that were buried underground.

   D. They decided to offer their students free room and board.

答案: A  指导:考查对文章事实细节的理解,依据是第三段文字的第二句话。

5. Jacques LBermuth gave the money to the school because_______.

   A. the school asked for it

   B. he had no need for that much money

   C. the school had helped him in the past

   D. he wanted to be remembered by the students

答案: C  指导:考查根据文章内容进行推理判断的能力。学校在Jacques LeB-ermuth困难的时候帮助过他,所以他寄来950万美元的支票回报学校。

Pssage 2 (典型例题

      It was an early September day, cool and bright and just  right for running, and I was in the first few miles of a 10-mile race over a course (路线) with a few high hills. Still, I felt energetic; despite the hills it was going to be a fine run.

      Just ahead of me was Peggy Mimno, a teacher from Mount  Kisco, New York. She too was running easily, moving along at my speed. The pace(步速) felt comfortable, so 1 decided to stay where I was; why pay attention to pace when she was setting such a nice one? I'd overtake (追上) her later on when she tired.

     So I ran behind her. The course headed north for five miles, wandered west for a hilly mile, then turned south again along a winding road. The race was getting harder. We had four miles left and already it was beginning to be real work.

     Peggy overtook a young runner. She seemed to know him, for they exchanged a few cheerful words as she passed him. Their exchange worried me. You don't chat during a race unless you are feeling good, and Peggy plainly was.

      Still, I was close enough to overtake her if she tired, so I didn't give up hope completely. We were getting nearer to a long  punishing hill now and it would be the test. We were a mile from the finish line, so whatever happened on the hill would almost certainly determine who crossed it first.

      As I moved up the hill, my attention wandered for a few minutes. When I looked up, Peggy was moving away--first five yards, then ten, then more. Finally it was clear that there was no hope of catching her. She beat me soundly.

There is an important lesson in that race.  Women are thought to be weaker, slower and not nearly as skilled in sport. Yet as Peggy Mimno so clearly showed, the similarities between men and women runners are more important than the differences. I have run with a number of women, and I can say that it is often hard work.

1. What did the writer think of the race in the beginning?

    A. It would be hard work.          

    C. It would be an easy race.

    C. It would be a test of his strength.

    D. It would be a good learning experience.

答案: B  指导:首先要审清题干,注意题干中的inthebeginning

  本文第一段、第二段中的一些词如energetica fine runrunning easilycomfortable等都反映出作者开始认为这场比赛不会很难。

2. What worried the writer when Peggy greeted the young runner?

    A. Peggy overtook the young runner.

    B. Peggy was running energetically.

    C. Peggy was laughing at the writer.

    D. Peggy paid no attention to the writer.

答案: B  指导:由第四段倒数第一句"You don't chat during a race unless you are feeling good”可知作者认为:你在比赛中聊天表示你感觉很好。而上句peggy恰恰在比赛中聊天反映出作者认为Peggy在比赛中的感觉,作为Peggy的对手,他当然很担心。

3. By saying" a long, punishing hill"(Paragraph 5) , the writer implies that_______.

   A. Peggy would fail to reach the hilltop

   B. men are more skilled at climbing hills

   C. overtaking Peggy would be easy

   D. climbing the hill would be a demanding task

答案: D  指导:下句中的test一词,能够反映作者当时的感觉,所以D为最佳选项。

4. What lesson does the writer learn from the race?

    A. Women are as good as men in sport.

    B. Women are better at climbing hills.

    C. He should have more training in a cross-country race.

    D. He should set a quicker pace at the beginning of a race.

答案: A  指导:文章倒数第一段倒数第一、二句是做此题的关键句。

Passage3 (典型例题

     Deserts are found where there is little rainfall or where rain for a whole year falls in only a few weeks' time. Ten inches of rain may be enough for many plants to survive (存活) if the rain is spread throughout the year. If it falls within one or two months and the rest of the year is dry, those plants may die and a desert may form.

Sand begins as tiny pieces of rock that get smaller and smaller as wind and weather wear them down. Sand dunes (沙丘) are formed as winds move the sand across the desert. Bit by bit, the dunes grow over the years, always moving with the winds and changing the shape. Most of them are only a few feet tall, but they can grow to be several hundred feet high.     

There is, however, much more to a desert than sand. In the deserts of the southwestern United States, cliffs (悬崖) and deep valleys were formed from thick mud that once lay beneath a sea more than millions of years ago. Over the centuries, the water dried up. Wind, sand, rain, heat and cold all wore away at the remaining rocks.  The faces of the desert mountains are always changing--very, very slowly--as these forces of nature continue to work on the rock.

Most deserts have a surprising variety of life. There are plants, animals and insects that have adapted to life in the deserr. During the heat of the day, a visitor may see very few signs of living things, but as the air begins to cool in the evening, the desert comes to life. As the sun begins to rise again in the sky, the desert once again becomes quiet and lonely.

1. Many plants may survive in deserts when_______.

   A. the rain is spread out in a year

   B. the rain falls only in a few weeks

   C. there is little rain in a year

   D. it is dry all the year round .

答案: A  指导:通过第一段内容可推出,此外作为中学生都应该有这样的常识,这题应是一个送分题。

2. Sand dunes are formed when_______.

   A. sand piles up gradually

   B. there is plenty of rain in a year

   C. the sea has dried up over the years

   D. pieces of rock get smaller

答案: A  指导:第二段第二句给出了明确答案。

3. The underlined sentence in the third paragraph probably  means that in a desert there is_______.

    A. too much sand

    B. more sand than before

    C. nothing except sand

D. something else besides sand

答案: D  指导:首先理解画线句子中的more...than(与……相比多于,不只是),然后根据本段其他句子进行推断。划线部分在本段是topic sentence,其他的句子是supporting sentence. 如果不明白主题句,可从支撑句中去推断,反之也是如此。

4. It can be learned from the text that in a desert_______.

   A. there is no rainfall throughout the year

   B. life exists in rough conditions

   C. all sand dunes are a few feet high

   D. rocks are worn away only by wind and heat

答案: B  指导:文章最后一段介绍了一些生活在严酷环境的沙漠中的生物情况。

Passage 4 (典型例题     Do you want to live another 100 years or more? Some experts say that scientific advances will one day enable humans to last tens of years beyond what is now seen as the natural limit of the human life span.

     "I think we are knocking at the door of immortality (永生) ,' said Michael Zey, a Montclair State University business professor and author of two books on the future. "I think by 2075 we will see it and that's a conservative estimate(保守的估计)."

     At the conference in San Francisco, Donald Louria, a professor at New Jersey Medical School in Newark said advances in using genes as well as nanotechnology(纳米技术)make it likely that humans will live in the future beyond what has been possible in the past. "There is a great push so that people can live from 120 to 180 years, "he said. "Some have suggested that there is no limit and that people could live to 200 or 300 or 500 years. '

      However, many scientists who specialize in ageing are doubtful about it and say the human body is just not designed to last about 120 years. Even with healthier lifestyles and less disease, they say failure of the brain and organs will finally lead all humans to death.

Scientists also differ on what kind of life the super aged might live. "It remains to be seen if you pass 120, you know; could you be healthy enough to have good quality of life?" said Leonard Peon, director of the University of Georgia Gerontology Centre "At present people who could get to that point are not in good health at alL'

1. By saying" we are knocking at the door of immortality", Michael Zey means_______.

   A. they believe that there is no limit of living

   B. they are sure to find the truth about long living

   C. they have got some ideas about living forever

   D. they are able to make people live past the present life span

答案: C  指导:immortality的意思为“永生”,所以MichaelZey觉得人可以长生不死。

2. Donald Louria's attitude toward long living is that

   A. people can live from 120 to 180

   B. it is still doubtful how long humans can live

   C. the human body is designed to last about 120 years

   D. it is possible for humans to live longer in the future

答案: D  指导:从第三段Donald的谈话可知,他认为人可以活120180岁甚至更久,200300岁。A项表述不完整。

3. The underlined"it' ( Paragraph 4) refers to _______.

   A. a great push

   B. the idea of living beyond the present life span

   C. the idea of living from 200 to 300 years

   D. the conservative estimate

答案: B指导:全文谈的都是人的寿命能否超越现在的期限,故选B.

4. What would be the best tide for this text?

   A. Living Longer or Not

   B. Science, Technology and Long Living

   C. No Limit for Human Life

   D. Healthy Lifestyle and Long Living

答案: A  指导:参考上题指导。

Passage 5 (典型例题

      Who is there among us who hasn't dreamed of having his or her own small ( maybe, several years later, even big) business, and having wonderful freedom, both from a boss and from the time clock: the freedom to make up our own rules for our work, and our own plans--arranging our own hours of work? That way work would be both painless and fun. Or, so we imagine.

     Well, in fact it isn't quite as simple as that. Yes, it is true that being the boss has its satisfactions and that you can arrange your working hours freely if you own your own small business. But in those early years of starting your own business, you shouldn't think of a free day, not to mention flying off for a month's vacation. It is not unusual for new business owners to work seventy or eighty hours a week, and if there is a day off, that day might need to be devoted to accounting(算账).

But this negative picture doesn't destroy the beautiful hopes. The possibility of getting something wonderful in return--both material and mental--continues to drive that large number of people who start up small businesses each year in the United States.

1. From the first paragraph, we know that everybedy bopes_______.

   A. to rule others

   B. to be his or her own boss

   C. to get a time clock

   D. to be free from work

答案: B指导:从第一段可得知。

2. Most new business owners have to_______.

   A. work more than 10 hours a day

   B. devote himself to accounting

   C. fly to some places in the world

   D. have a day off in a week

答案: A  从句中“h is not unusual for new business owners to works eventy or eighty hours a week"可知一天工作十多个小时。

3. The expression "negative picture" nxet probably means_______.

   A. a terrible experience

   B. a poor picture

   C. limited freedom

   D. unpleasant situations

答案: D指导:根据第二段可知negmive picture means unpleasant situations

4. The beautiful hopes will never be destroyed because_______.

   A. people love beautiful things by nature

   B. people have a strong desire to seek personal gains

   C. small businesses make big money each year in the US

   D. small businesses have advantages over big companies

答案: B指导:从最后一段可知此答案。

Ⅱ题点经典类型题

1.(典型例题卷)

Letter to Editor of TV Weekly Dear Sir/Madam,

     I read Alison Burnham's review of When we were 12, and I do not agree with her. I thought the programme was wonder- ful--I found the old news pictures really interesting--they helped to bring to life the stories the people were telling.

     The programme reminds me of many things from my own childhood. For example, one day when I was about five, I was going to school on the bus by myself (this was the late 1960s).  My mother had given me exactly the right money for a return ticket. I held out my hand with the money in it--one big coin on top of one little coin. The bus conductor took the big top coin only and she gave me a ticket, but it was a pink one for a single journey. I needed a white one for a return journey, but I was too frightened to say anything. When school finished for the day, I couldn't catch the bus home--I had to walk. As a grown-up, whenever I've been in a situation where I need to say something or take some action, this early memory of my bus ride comes back to me, and I'm able to take control of the situation.

I would like to say to the director, Bret Ctfrysler, carry on making this kind of programme. Too much TV these days is quiz shows and so-called "reality programmes". I appreciate the human story that can make me laugh and cry. Yours faithfully, Chris Daniels

1. What is Chris Daniels' purpose of writing this letter.

   A. To persuade Bret Chrysler to turn away from quiz shows.

   B. To entertain other readers with old news pictures.

   C. To express his appreciation of the programme.

   D. To have his story told on the programme.

2. Chris Daniels tells the story about the bus ticket to_______.

    A. describe how painful his early experience was

    B. draw a direct response from Alison Burnham

    C. show how the programme made him think

    D. teach the readers of TV Weekly a lesson

3. According to the passage, Chris Daniels had to walk home  because_______.

    A. he hadn't got a return ticket

    B. he had lost his bus ticket

    C. he didn't like big crowds

    D. he missed the bus home

4. What does Chris Daniels now think about his experience on  the bus?

   A. He should have told the conductor then.

   B. He should have been well treated.

   C. He regrets going to school alone.

   D. He wishes it hadn't happened.

【解析】  本文是作者为感谢TVWeekly节目而给编辑写的一封信,信中谈到自己童年时的真实经历和感受。

答案: 1C主旨大意题.从开头第一段第二句“It houughtthe programme was wonderful.., they helped to bring to life the stories the people were telling"和文章最后一句 "I appreciate the human story that can make me laugh and ery"可判断作者是十分感激的。

2C 推断题。第二段中作者叙述自己童年的经历和感受,一切都是"The programme reminds me of many things from my own childhood."

3. A 细节题。 --可从文中第二段直接找到答案: but it was a pink one for as ingle journey...  I couldn't catch the bus home... I had to walk.

4. A 细节推断题目。由第二段最后一句:: As a grown-up,whenever I've been in a situation where I need to say something or take some action, this early... "可以推知A为最佳选项。

Passage 1 (名校联考八)

      Sport not only is physically challenging, but it can also be mentally challenging. Criticism fromcoaches, parents, and oth- er teammates, as well as pressure to win can create an excessive amount ofanxiety or stress for young athletes (运动员). Stress can be physical, emotional, or psychological (心理上的), and research has indicated (暗示) that it can lead to bum out. Bum out has been described as dropping or quitting of an activity that was at one time enjoyable.

     The early years of development are critical years for learning about oneself. The sport setting is one where valuable ex- periences can take place.  Young athletes can, for example, learn how to cooperatewith others, make friends, and gain oth- er social skills that will be used throughout their lives. Coaches and parents should be aware, at all times, that their feedback to youngsters can greatly affect their children. Youngsters may take their parents' and coaches' criticisms to heart and find a flaw(缺陷) in themselves.

Coaches and parents should also be cautious (小心)that youth sport participation does not become work for children. The outcome of the game should not be more important than the process of learning the sport and other life lessons.  In today's youth sport setting, young athletes may be worrying more about who will win instead of enjoying themselves and the sport. Following a game, many parents and coachesfocus on the outcome and find fault with youngsters' performances. Pos- hive (正面的) reinforcement (强化) should be provided regardless of the outcome. Research indicates that positive rein- forcement motivates and has a greater effect on learning than criticism. Again, criticism can create high levels of stress, which can lead to bum out.

1. An effective way to prevent the bum out of young athletes is_______.

   A. to reduce their mental stress

   B. to increase their sense of success

   C. to make sports less competitive

   D. to make sports more challenging

答案: A指导:这是一篇探讨心理、教育问题的议论文。文章讨论了体育比赛对年轻人成长所起的作用以及父母、教练及运动员应该如何正确面对体育比赛,如何使年轻人通过参与竞技体育培养健康的心理,学习掌握成长中所需的技能。文章第一段第三句“...It can lead to burnout,”中,这里it 指代stress,既然burnout是由stress所导致,那么防止burnout 的办法自然就是减少压力。BCD三项恰恰都会增加运动员的精神压力,从而增加the burnout of young athletes

2. According to the passage sport is positive for young people in that_______.

   A. it can help them learn more about society

   B. it enables them to find flaws in themselves

   C. it can provide them with valuable experiences

   D. it teaches them how to set realistic goals for themselves.

答案: C  指导:本题可采用排除法。BD两项较易排除,选项A是干扰项。由文章第二段第二、三句"The sport settingis one where valuable experiences can take placeYoung ath letesallfor examplelearn how to cooperate with Othersmake friendsand gain other social skills that will be used throunghouttheirlives",比较AC两项,C项更贴切,故选C项。

3. Many coaches and parents are in the habit of criticizing young athletes_______.

  A. believing that criticism is beneficial for their early development

  B. without realizing criticism may destroy their self-confidence

  C. in order to make them remember life's lessons

  D. so as to put more pressure on them

答案: B  指导:由文章第二段最后两句“Coaches and parents shouldawareatalltimesthat their feed back toyougsters can greatly affect their chdrenYoungsters may take thdir parents'and coaches criticisms to heart and find a flaw in themselves"可知选项B符合文意。

4. According to the passage parents and coaches should_______.

     A. pay more attention to letting children enjoy sports

     B. help children to win every game

     C. train children to cope with (应付) stress

D.  enable children to understand the positive aspect  of sports

答案: D  指导:BC项易排除。关键在于对AD两项的判断。本文的主旨是:家长、教练及年轻人应如何正确对待体育比赛;要注意比赛的过程而非结果,要认识到年轻人参加运动比赛是为了学习到宝贵的经验。A项“要注意让孩子享受运动的乐趣”与文章的主旨不符。根据第三段第二句,可知D项正确。

Passage 2 (东城综合)

     Advertising gives useful information about which products to buy. But modem advertising does more than gives news about products and services. Today's advertisements, or ads, try to get consumers (消费者) to buy certain brands (品牌).  Writers of advertising are so skillful that they can sometimes persuade a consumer to wear a certain kind of clothing, cat a special kind of cereal (麦片) , or see a movie. Consunfers might never even want a product if they did not see or hear advertisements for it.

For example, you probably do not need the newest cereal in the supermarket. There are probably many cereal brands on your kitchen shelves. You may not have space on your shelf for another. But if you see ads about a new cereal that is your extra-tasty and has a free prize in the box, you may want it. Ad- vertising must get attention. To be effective, it must be exciting, entertaining, or provide some pleasure.  The secret of writing good advertising copy is to offer a good idea as well as a product. The idea is what the ad is really selling. One example is an ad that says eating a certain cereal will make a person do well in sports. That cereal brand may sell better if consumers think it offers strength and energy.

1. What is discussed in this passage?

   A. The content of modem advertising.

   B. The skills of modern advertising.

   C. The results of modem advertising.

   D. The writing of modem advertising.

答案: B  指导:本文着重讲述了广告的作用,所以为了起到应有的作用,必须有一定的技巧。

2. According to the passage, a good advertisemnt should _______.

   A. be both persuasive and effective

   B. give people useful information

   C. show people a product

   D. show people a new idea of a product

答案: A  指导:由文章第一段第三句"Today's advertisemensoradstry to get consumers to buy certain brands"可知A正确。

3. From the passage, we can infer that _______.

  A. modern advertising has less effect on customers

  B. once customers see ads about a new cereal, they are sure   to buy it

  C. cereal can make people strong

  D. cereal is a kind of food which is popular among people

答案: D  指导:由文章第二段"you probably do not need the newest cereal in the supermarket. There are probably many cereal brands on your kitchen shelves. You may not have space  on your shelf for another. But if you see ads about a new ce  real that is your extra-tasty and has a free prize in the box, you may want it. "可以推测出来cereal 是一种受人们欢迎的食品。

4. What can we infer from the passage?

  A. Customers can easily be persuaded by advertisements.

  B. Customers should be persuaded by advertisements.

  C. It's impossible for customers to buy a product without adver tisements.

  D. Customers buy products according to their demands rather than the advertisements.

答案: A 指导:由于本文主要讲述广告的介绍作用和劝诱作用,同时文章第二段的麦片的例子就是一个暗示,所以A为正确答案。

Passage 3 (西城质检)

     Among various programmes, TV talk shows have covered every inch of space on daytime television.  And anyone who watches them regularly knows that each one is different in style (风格) ? But no two shows are more opposite in content, while at the same time standing out above the rest, than the Jerry Springer and the Gprah Winfrey shows.

     Jerry Springer could easily be considered the king of "rubbish talk". The contents on his show are as surprising as can be. For example, the show takes the ever-common talk show titles of love, sex, cheating and hate, to a different level. Clearly, the Jerry Springer show is about the dark side of society, yet people are willing to eat up the troubles of other people's lives.

      Like jerry Springer, Oprah Winfrey takes TV talk show to its top, but Oprah goes in the opposite direction. The show is mainly about the improvement of society and difference, quality (质量) of life. Contents are from teaching your children les- sons, managing your work week to getting to know your neighbours.

     Cormpared to Oprah, the jerry Springer show looks like poisonous waste being poured into society. Jerry ends every show with a "final word". He makes a small speech about the entire idea of the show. Hopefully, this is the part where most people will learn something very valuable.

Clear as it is, the Oprah show is not for everyone. The show's main viewers are middle class Americans. Most of these people have the time, money, and ability to deal with life's tougher problems. Jerry Springer, on the other hand, has more of a connection with the young adults of society. These are 18to-21-year-olds whose main troubles in life include love, rela- tionship, sex, money and drug. They are the ones who see some value and lessons to be learned through the show's exploitation.

1. Compared with other TV talk shows, both the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey are _______.

  A. more interesting         B. unusually popular

  C. more detailed            D. more formal

答案: B 指导:由文章第二段最后一句可知B正确。

2. Though the social problems Jerry Springer talks about appear unpleasant, people who watch the shows _______.

  A. remain interested in them

  B. are ready to face up to them

  C. remain cold to them

  D. are willing to get away from them

答案: A  指导:由第二段的最后一句“… yet people are willing to eat up the troubles of other people's lives"和文章的最后一句 "They are the ones who see some value and lessons to be learned through the show's exploitation'可知A正确。

3. Which of the following is likely to be a topic of the oprah Winfrey show?

  A. A new type of robot.    B. Nation hatred ().

  C. Family income planning. D. Street accident.

答案: C  指导:由文中第三段第二、三句”The show is mainly about the improvement of society and difference,quality of life Contents are from teaching your children lessons, managing your work week to getting to know your neighhors"C正确。

4. We can learn from the passage that the two talk shows_______.

  A. have become the only ones of its kind

  B. exploit the weaknesses in human nature

  C. appear at different times of the day

  D. attract different people

答案:D  指导:由文章最后两段“clear as it is, the Oprah show is not for everyone. The show's main viewers are middle Americans""Jerry Springer, on the other hand, has more of a connection with the young adults of society,' 可在这两个节目吸引不同的人群。

Passage4(海淀质检)

     In October, 1961, at Crowley Field in Cincinnati, Ohio,an old, deaf gentleman named William E.  Hoy stood up to throw the first ball of the World Series. Most people at Crowley Field on that day probably did not remember Hoy because he had retired (退休) from professional baseball 58 years earlier, in 19典型例题ever, he had been an outstanding player and the deaf people still talk about him and his years in baseball.

     William E. Hoy was born in Houckstown, Ohio, on May 23,1862. He became deaf when he was two years old. He attended the Columbus Ohio School for the deaf. After graduation, he started playing baseball while working as a shoemaker.

     Hoy began playing professional baseball in 1886 for Oshkosh (Wisconsin) of the Northwestern League. In 1888, he started as an outfielder (外场手) with the old Washington Senators. His small figureand speed made him an outstanding base runner. He was very good at stealing bases during his career. In the 1888 major league season, he stole 82 bases. He was also the Senators' leading hitter in 1888.  Hoy was clever; he threw right-handed and batted left-handed. On June 19, 1889, he threw out three batters (击球手)at the plate from his out- field position.

     The ann signals used by judges today to show balls and strikes began became of Hoy. The judge lifted his right ann to show that the pitch was a strike, and his left arm to signal that it was a ball.

     For many years, people talked about Hoy's last ball game in 19典型例题was playing for Los Angelesof the Pacific Coast Winter League. It was a memorable game because Hoy made a wonderful play which won the game. It was a very foggy night and, therefore, very hard to see the ball. In the ninth inning (棒球的一局), with two men out, Hoy managed to catch a fly ball to make the third out in spite of the fog. Los Angeles de- feated their opposition and won the game.

      After he retired, Hoy stayed busy.  He ran a dairy farm near Cincinnati for 20 years. He also became a public speaker Ired traveled giving speeches.  Until a few years before his death, he took 4 and 10 mile walks several mornings a week. 0n December 15, 1961,William E. Hoy died at the age of 99.

 1. In which order did the following things happen in Hoy's life?

    a. Hoy worked as a shoemaker.

    b. Hoy began to run a dairy farm.

    c. Hoy played a memorable game in the heavy fog.

    d. Hoy threw the first ball of the World Series.

    e. Hoy became deaf.

   A. d, e, a, c, b     B. e, a, c, b, d

   C. d,a,e,c,b         D. e,a,b,c,d

答案: B  指导:由文中第二段可知前三个顺序。

2. We can infer from the last paragraph that Hoy _______ in his late years.

   A. became famous

   B. led a relaxed life

   C. traveled around the world

   D. was in good physical condition

答案: D  指导:由最后一段中的倒数第二句“直到他死前的几年中一周有几天的早晨要走410里”可知。

3. This passage is mainly about _______.

  A. a deaf player devoted to the game of baseball

  B. baseball game rules and important players

  C. the rise in the social position of the deaf people

  D. where the baseball judge hand signals came from

答案: A  指导:本文近似一篇新闻报道,第一段是文章的中心句,由此可知。

4. What can be inferred from this passage?

  A. Hoy was the greatest baseball player in his time.

  B.  Speaking and listening are not necessary in baseball games.

  C. The judge had to study the hand signals very seriously.

  D. Hoy's family encouraged him to become a baseball player.

答案:B  指导:由文中的deaf可推导出。

Passages 5(朝阳综合)

     People are making more and more demands on the world's natural resources. If babies bom in 1991 live for eighty years, the human population of the world may be anything from twice to three times the present total by 2070. In other words, they will have to share what is left of the earth's resources with 15 billion other people. But hopefully there will be an important decrease in the growth of population. What if this does not happen? The answer is that by the time before the babies born in 1991 reach the age of 40 they could be sharing resources with as many as 10 billion other people.

     Limiting the pollution of water and the atmosphere, controlling the output of the chemicals that may be causing the global warming and climate change, and eating less meat may go some to help, but can anyone seriously imagine that these are going to solve the problems of the "baby class" of 1991 ?

There is no getting away from the fact that people are responsible(5(......负责) for the present state of the world, and only people can solve the problems. The decisions have to be taken by people as members of national and local governments;as leaders and decision-makers in industry; as scientists and technologists; as professional engineers and designers; as reli- gious (宗教的) leaders and individual citizens.

1. Which of the following can be the best title of the passage?

   A. Making More Demands on the Natural Resources

   B. Limiting the Pollution of Air and Water

   C. Reducing the World Population

   D. Saving the Babies of 1991

答案: C  指导:本文主要讲述随着人口的增长,出现了一系列的问题,所以C为最佳答案。

2. What does the author mean by "the problems of the baby class of 1991" ?

   A. A large number of babies will be bom after 1991.

   B. Babies bom in 1991 won't live a long life.

   C. The children of 1991 are not given good education.

   D. The problems caused by babies bom in 1991.

答案: D  指导:文章着重以1991年出生的孩子为例说明人口增长将会带来一系列问题,所以D为最佳答案。

3. This short passage is probably taken from _______.

   A. a news report

   B. a guide to the world

   C. an article by a medical worker

   D. a government report

答案: A  指导:据写作方式和最后一段所列举的“人”可知文章是以“呼吁”的语气写的,故A为最佳答案。

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the last paragraph as people responsible for the present state of the

   world?

   A. Officials.         B. Industrialists.

   C. Businessmen.       D. Scientists.

答案: C  指导:由最后一段最后一句可知。

Ⅲ 新高考命题探究

Passage 1

     Visit Iceland and you'll enter a whole new region of experience. You'll discover original nature as you've never seen it before, and the equally Original people for whom timeless nature, ancient heritage and modem lifestyle coexist in harmony. The freedom to wander in the city or the wilds as you please is the key to the Iceland experience.

     Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, is just a part of the Icelandic experience with its midnight sun or the magical landscapes mixed with ice and fire. Reykjavik has a population of around 170,000 and offers an interesting mix of cosmopolitan (世界各地的) culture and local village roots.

     Old accounts say the ancient gods themselves guided Iceland's first settler to make his home in Reykjavik. He named the place Reykjavik (Steamy Bay ) after the geothermal (地热) steam he saw, which today heats homes and outdoor swimming pools throughout the city, a pollution-free energy source that leaves the air outstandingly fresh, clean and clear.

      A beautiful river runs through the city limits, and so do fine parks and even wild outdoor areas.  In the outskirts are places for horse trekking and golf. But against this backcloth of nature, Reykjavik has a packed program of familiar city joys too: art museums, several theaters, an opera house, a symphony orchestra and concerts meeting the needs of the whole spectrum of age and taste.

     One must for all visitors is dining out on Icelandic specialities,  including  delicious  seafood,  ocean-fresh  from  the morning's catch, highland lamb and unusual varieties of game. Its purely natural food imagiriatively served to delight the most disceming(内行的)of diners. Reykjavik is also famous as one of Europe's hottest nightspots, where the action on the friendly pub and nightlife scene lasts right through the night. In the evening, the downtown area filled with activity, reaching its peak on Friday or Saturday. The number of pubs, cafe, discos, and other night-spots in the downtown area is astonishing. There is arich variety of places to go. European-style cafes, nightclubs with live entertainment, dance halls for seniors, sports-theme pubs with big TV screens, cafes that offer over 100 types of beer, an Irish pub, a Spanish cafe, a French wine bar...

     Walking distances are short downtown, and everything worth seeing outside the city center can be quickly and conveniently reached by bus. With its long, easy-going main street and large shopping mall, Iceland's capital is a great place to shop too with a bonus of tax-free shopping for visitors! Be careful not just for souvenirs(纪念品) (especially woolens and handicrafts) but also for stylish consumer goods and designer labels at competitive prices.

A full range of accommodations (住宿) is available in Reykiavik, from international-standard hotels with good conference facilities, through smaller hotels and comfortable guest- houses, to a campsite in the city's biggest park.

1. It can be learned from the passage that Reykiavik_______.

  A. was named by the ancient gods

  B. got its name from the visitors

  C. was named by Iceland's first settler

  D. was named after Iceland's first settler

答案: C  指导:由文中第三段第一行"Old accounts say the ancientgods themselves guided lceland's first settler to make his homein ReykiaviikHe named the place Reykiavikafter the geothermalsteamhesaw...”可知C为正确选项。

2. While visiting Iceland, the most enjoyable thing is_______.

  A. to taste its purely natural food

  B. to wander freely in the city or the wilds as you please

  C. to visit the night-spots there

  D. to do tax-free shopping

答案: B  指导:由文中第一段最后一句话"The freedomtowander  in the city or The wilds as you please is the key to the lceland experience"可知B为最佳选项。

3. Which of the following subjects are mentioned in the fifth paragraph?

  A. Shopping and accommodations

  B. Dining and night-spots

  C. City joys and backcloth of nature

  D. Transportation and landscapes

答案: B  指导:由第五段明显可以看出B为最佳选项,关键词是本段第一行中的diningout和第五行中的alsofamousasone

  Of europe's hottest nightspots

4. It can be inferred from the passage that _______.

  A. all visitors must dine out while visiting Iceland

  B.  hotel accommodation is so scarce that visitors usually camp in the city's big gest parks

   C. people living in Reykiavik seldom get heat from coal

   D. you have to walk a short distance if you want to go sight seeing outside the city

答案: C  指导:根据全文,此处以geothermal(地热)而命名,所以人们充分利用地热而很少烧煤,故此C应该为最佳选项。

Passage 2

      Governors, lawyers and business leaders have to deal with scientists, and every educated person finds his views affected by science. Yet our science teaching of non-scientists, in school and college,has built up mistaken ideas, dislikes, and the common boast, "I never did understand science.' Even those students who arrive at college with plans to become scientists usually bring a mistaken picture of science: some have a collection of unorganized facts about science, and some regard the study of science as a game which includes getting the right answer.

The first of these attitudes seems to come from a kind of course which provides various kinds of information; the second, from a training course on how to pass examinations that do not ask about the student's understanding but simply require him to put the numbers in the right formulas(公式). Neither type of courses (in school or college) seems to give students and understanding of science as we find it among scientists. Neither shows students how real scientists work and think how the facts are gathered, how discoveries are made, and what they mean. Young people need good teaching of science, not so much a great wealth of knowledge as a healthy understanding of the nature of science. They need an un-derstanding of knowl edge leading to sympathy with science and an eagerness of the way scientists work. Given these, it is easy to encourage later reading and learning.

1. One of the reasons that cause mistaken ideas of science is           .

   A. a mistaken picture in students' mind

   B. the unscientific way of teaching of science

   C. the fact that students fail to see the influence (影响)of science

   D. the fact that students have a collection of unrelated facts about science

答案: B  指导:由文中第一段第二句"Yetourscience teaching of  non-scientistsinschool and in college...”可知教育方式是错的,所以B为正确答案。

2. According to the passage, we can safely say that the subject of the passage is _______.

   A. need for good science teaching

   B. every person, including governors, lawyers and business  leaders should study science

   C. young people should form a correct attitude to science

   D. students must know what science is and how scientists  work and think

答案: A  指导:根据文章先说明教育的失误,再分析为何不正确,最后在结尾解决问题"young people need good teaching of science...”。所以A为正确答案。

3. A good course of science is_______.

   A. to teach students to do things according to formulas

   B. to provide students with all kinds of information

   C. to help students have a good understanding and form a correct attitude to science

   D. to encourage students to have a good command of knowledge

答案:C  指导:根据文中第二段中第五行"Neithertype of courses seems to give students an understandingscienceNeither shows students how real scientists work and think...”可知C为最佳选项。

 4. People such as governors, lawyers and business leaders deal with scientists mainly because _______.

   A. scientists are great persons

   B.scientists make discoveries and apply them to help people  live a more comfortable, stable and safe life

   C. they owe much to scientists' contributions

   D. they can be affected by scientists when they are together

答案:B  指导:由文中第一段第一句"and every educated person fidshis viewaffected by science'’可知与上一句构成并列关系,所以B为最佳选项。

Passage 3

      Is it possible to persuade mankind to live without war? War is an ancient practice which has existed for at least six thousand years. It was always bad and usually foolish, but in the past, the human race managed to live with it. Modern cleverness has changed this. Either Man will end the existence of war, or war will end the existence of Man. For the present, it is nuclear weapons (核武器) that cause the most serious danger, but bacteriological or chemical weapons may, before long, offer an even greater threat. If we succeeded in ending the existence of nuclear weapons, our work will not be done. It will never be done until we have succeeded in ending war. To do this, we need to persuade mankind to look up on international problems in a new way not as contests of force, in which the victory goes to the side which is most skillful inkilling people, but by settling in accordance with agreed rules of law. It is not easy to change very old mental habits, but this is what must be attempted.

     There are those who say that the acceptance of this or that ideology (意识形态) would prevent war. I believe this to be a big mistake. All ideologies are based upon dogmatic statements (强词夺理) which are, at best, doubtful, and at worst, totally false. Their supporters believe in them so deeply that they are willing to go to war in support of them.

The movement of world opinion during the past few years has been very largely such as we can welcome. It has become a commonplace that nuclear war must be avoided. Of course very difficult problems remain in the world, but the spirit in which they are coming nearer to is a better one than it was some years ago. It has begun to be thought, even by the powerful men who decide whether we shall live or die, that negotiations should reach agreements even if both sides do not find these agreements wholly satisfactory. It has begun to be understood that the important struggle nowadays is not between different countries but between Man and the atom bomb. 

1. This passage implies that war is now_______.

   A. worse than in the past

   B. as bad as in the past

   C. not as dangerous as in the past

   D. as necessary as in the past

答案: A  指导:由文中第一段第六行"Forthepresent, it isnuclear weapons thatcausethemost seriousdangerbut bacteriological or chemical weapons maybefore longoffer and even  greater"可知A为正确答案。

2. In the sentence "To do this, we need to persuade mankind.. "( Paragraph 1 ) ,"this" refers to_______.

   A. to end the existence of war

   B. to improve weapons

   C. to solve international problems

   D. to live a peaceful life

答案: A  指导:由this的指代作用,要么是上面提到的东西,要么是下文马上要提到的东西,所以在此处应该是上文提到的endingway,因此A为最佳选项。

3. From Paragraph 2 we learn that the writer of the Passage_______.

   A. is a supporter of some modern ideologies

   B. does not think that the acceptance of any ideologies could  prevent war

   C. believes that the acception of some ideologies could prevent war

   D. does not doubt the truth of any ideologies

答案: B  指导;由文章第二段第二行“Ibe lievet his to Leabigmis take"可知作者持怀疑态度,故B为最佳选项。

4. According to the writer,_______.

   A. war is the only way to solve intemational arguments

   B. war will be less dangerous because of the improvement of weapons

   C. it is impossible for people to live without war

   D. war must be ended if man wants to survive (生存)

答案:D  指导:由文中第一段第五行"EitherManwillendtheexis tence of warorwarwill end the existence of Man"可知D为正确答案。

Passage 4

     What do literary greats Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Robert Bums have in common? They both lived and wrote in Edinburgh, along with many other big names in the field of literature. This fact helped UNESCO (联合国教科文组织) award the city the tide of world's first City of Liter ature on October 14.

     Edinburgh left a lasting impression on Arthur Conan Doyle (1859 1930). Although he was bom there, he went to school in England but retumed home for medical school. After graduating, he moved to London and began writing his Sherlock Holmes stories.  His inspiration for the character came from one of his professors at university. Holmes' methods were so clever that they actually furthered the advance of the study of criminology (犯罪学) ?

     Robert Bums (1759--1796) is still regarded as Scotland's national poet, more than 200 years after his death. He is cele- brated all over the world through translations of his works and the annual Bums Night supper on his birthday. One of his songs, "My Love Is Like A Red Red Rose" ranks among the finest love songs ever written and "Auld Lang Syne" (友宜地久天长) is sung all around the world.

As one of the first literary societies in Europe, the Scottish Parliament passed the world's first compulsory (有义务) education law in 1496. By the 1790s, almost all Scots could read. Visitors to Scotland often observed that even the lowest members of society had copies of Bums' poems and other books.

1. Edinburgh was awarded the title of world's first City of Lit erature because_______.

  A. the first award ceremony of literature was held there

  B. many literary greats like Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and  Robert Bums were born there

C. it left a deep impression on many literary greats like Sir  Arthur Conan Doyle

  D. many literary greats like Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Robert Bums often wrote about it

答案: B  指导:根据短文第一段所表述的:文坛巨匠亚瑟·科南· 道尔和罗伯特·伯恩斯以及文学界的其他一些名人,他们都出生在爱丁堡,笔耕于爱丁堡。在这座城市里产生了许许多多的作家,正由于这浓厚的书香氛围,联合国教科文组织于1014日把“世界首座文学城市”的荣誉授予爱丁堡。

2. Arthur Corian ]Doyle was remembered mainly for his _______.

   A. detective stories

   B. love poems and songs

   C. contribution to the study of criminology

   D. clever writing skill

答案:A  指导:根据短文第二段中的内容:科南·道尔创作了福尔摩斯系列故事,其探案方法被描绘得非常奇妙,这让犯罪学研究也获益匪浅,并使其得到了进一步的发展。由此推断他是以“侦探小说”而出名。

3. In the last paragraph, the writer mainly discussed _______.

   A. the impression of visitors to Scotland

   B. how Bums' poems are popular in Scotland

   C. the possible history reasons for many literary greats in Scotland

   D. how the world's first tcompulsouy education law was made

答案:C  指导:段意推测题。最后一段所表述的意义为:苏格兰之所以产生这么多的文学巨匠有其历史渊源。短文中列举了三个事实,苏格兰议会于1496年通过了世界上第一个义务教育法。到18世纪90年代的时候,几乎所有的苏格兰人都能识字了。许多去苏格兰游览的人发现,就连苏格兰的市井小民也在读伯恩斯的诗以及其他一些书。

Passage 5

 Animal Conservation

      Many animal and plant species have become extinct(灭绝的) and many more are in critical danger. Finding Ways to protect the earth's wildlife and conserve (保护) the natural world they inhabit (居住) is now more important than ever.

      Dodos

      The dodo was a classic example of how human caused damage to the earth's biology. The flightless dodo was native to the Island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. It lived off fruit fallen from the island's trees and lived unthreatened until humans arrived in 15典型例题 easily controlled bird became a source of food for sailors and was attacked by animals introduced to the island by humans such as pigs, monkeys and rats. The population of dodo rapidly decreased and the last one was killed in 1681.

      Rhinos

      The rhino (犀牛) horn is a highly prized item for Asian medicines. This has led to the animal being hunted in its natural habitat.  Once widespread in Africa and Eurasia, most rhinos now live in protected natural parks and reserves (保护区). Their numbers have rapidly decreased in the last 50 years, and the animals remain under constant threat from poachers (偷猎者).

     Giant panda

     The future of the World Wildlife Fund's symbol is far from certain. As few as I 000 remain in the wild. The Chinese goveminent has set up 33 panda reserves to protect these beautiful animals and made poaching them punishable with 20 years in prison. However,The panda's distinct black and white patched  coat fetches a high price on the black market and determined  poachers still pose (造就) one of the most serious threats to the animals continued existence.

      Whales

      The International Whaling Commission is fighting to en sure the survival of the whale species. Despite the fact that one third the world's oceans have been declared the whale sanctua ries (保护), 7 out of 13 whale species remain endangered. Hunted for their rich supply of oil, their numbers have de creased to just 300. Collisions (碰撞) with ships, poisonous pollution and being caught in fishing nets are other major causes of whale deaths.

       Tigers

The last 100 years has seen a 95% reduction in the num bers of remaining tigers to between 5,000 and 7,000 and the Bali, Javan, and Caspian tigers are already extinct. The South  China tiger is precariously close to disappearing, with only 20 to 30 still alive. Like the rhino horn, tigers' bones and organs  are sought after for traditional Chinese medicines. These items are traded illegally along with tiger skins.

1. It implies that _______.

   A. the dodo lacked the ability to protect itself from other animals

   B. sailors to the Island of Mauritius lived mainly on the dodo

   C. the dodo used to be a strong animal that liked fighting

   D. the dodo, pigs, monkeys and rats were the natives to the Island of Mauritius

答案: A  指导:从文章中的flightlesslivedofffruitfallenfromthe island'streesEasilycontrolled等可推测出dodo缺乏保护自己的能力。

2. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

    A. The number of South (]tim tiger has reached crisis point.

    B. Many animals are threatened with extinction as a result of human activity.

    C. People hunt for the endangered animals for high profit.

    D. The whale is the representing mark for the World Wildlife Fund

答案: D  指导:从第四段中的"The fature of the World Wildlife Fund's symbolis for from certain"一句可得“世界野生动物基金”的图案标志是“大熊猫”而不“鲸”。

 
 
 
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